Transverse myelitis is a neurological condition caused by inflammation of the spinal cord resulting in axonal demyelination . It is often develops after viral infection or occur during autoimmune disease. The term transverse myelitis is derived from the latin word myelitis transverse.
What causes the Transverse myelitis?
The exact causes of transverse myelits still unknown but researchers believe that it occurs during autoimmune diseases. Some other believed that transverse myelitis is caused following an infections resulting inflammation within the spinal cord arise as a result of bodys immune reaction to the bacteria or virus and some virus likes Varicella zoster , Herpes simples directly invade the spinal cord produce symptoms of transverse myelitis.Transverse myelitis is sometimes associated with other diseases, like systemic lupus erythematosis and sarcoidosis.
What are the signs and symptoms of transverse myelitis?
Symptoms and signs develop rapidly over a period of hours. Typical sign and symptoms includes:
- Abnormal sensations: Patients report sensations of tingling, numbness ,coldness or burning below the affected area below the spinal cord.
- Pain: Pain is sharp, shooting sensations begins suddenly in neck or back and radiate to legs, arm or abdomen depending on the part of spinal cord that is affected.
- Weakness of arms or legs: Weakness to severe paralysis of arms and legs depending on the part of spinal cord that is affected.
- Bowel and bladder dysfunction
- Muscle spasma
- What are the complications of Transverse myelitis ?
- Partial or total paralysis
- Spasticity of muscle
How to diagnosed of Transverse myelitis ?
Diagnosis relies on patients history ,physical examination , lab tests and radiological imaging .
- Lumber Puncture: Shows high numbers of white blood cells or protein in the fluid , suggesting an infection or an inflammation.
- Blood test: Shows positive antibodies for neuromyelitis optica.
- MRI: MRI shows brain and spinal cord may show inflammation.
How to managed Transverse myelitis ?
- Patients of Transverse myeltis need hospital admission and managed with giving ,
- Intravenous steriod
- Plasma exchange therapy
- Pain management : Pain is managed with giving Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs — such as aspirin, ibuprofen.
- Physical therapy: To increased the muscle power .
- Occupational therapy
- Other treatments: some patients well responds to intravenous cyclophosphamide .
What is the prognosis of Transverse myelitis ?
If Transverse myelitis is treated early prognosis is excellent .